MPEG - (Motion Picture Experts Group) - MPEG represents digital video and audio compression standards and file formats formulated by the Motion Picture Experts Group, an international group of industry experts who's aim is/was to standardize compressed moving pictures and audio. They first met as a group in 1988. (Reference.)

DVB-S2 incorporates MPEG video compression technology.  (Note - MPEG is a video & audio compression standard while DVB-S is a data transmission standard.) The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards.

MPEG is sufficient for all the major TV standards, including NTSC and HDTV.

MPEG-1 - Standard for coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media up to about 1.5 Mbps.  Its quality is comparable to VHS video (which is what most Americans have in their homes if they use a VCR.) This standard is designed to work at 1.2 Mbps, which is the data rate of CD-ROMs, thus the video could be played from CDs. The quality however is not sufficient for TV broadcast. It may be used by interactive TV content developers for TV stills (shots with no motion.)

MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular audio encoding format. It's the primary audio format used in iPODs.

MPEG-2  - Standard for coding of moving pictures and associated audio, typically using the 4 to 9 Mbps bandwidth range (but can produce data between 1.2 and 15 Mbps.) It provides broadcast-quality video and includes separate specifications for audio and video. This is sufficient for all the major TV standards, including NTSC and HDTV.

MPEG-3 -

MPEG-4 - MPEG-4 builds on MPEG-2 by allowing for greater use of multimedia/graphics within the video stream and for better compression. Its standards are for use in digital television, interactive graphics and interactive multimedia (which includes video.)  MPEG-4 delivers video quality as good as MPEG-2 at a significantly lower bit rate.

MPEG 4:2:2 - Also referred to as Studio MPEG, Professional MPEG and 442P@ML.

MPEG-7 - Short for Multimedia Content Description Interface. It's a way of attaching meta-data to multimedia. 

MPEG-21 – More oriented to MPEG content delivery from the viewpoint of the consumer. It’s envisioned to be an open framework for multimedia delivery and consumption.

MPEG 4 carriage over MPEG2 networks

URI pointer system and method for the carriage of MPEG-4 data in an MPEG-2 transport stream

MPEG-4 AVC - (a.k.a. H.264) - AVC stands for Advanced Video Coding.

MPEG Splicing - The ability to cut into an MPEG bit stream for switching and editing.

MPEG-TS - MPEG Transport Stream.