Dictionary and Business Index™
(Last updated in 2012)
on Demand – (VOD) - (In terms of Interactive Television) -
be known as TV-based
VOD, VoD, On-Demand Television, Movies-on-Demand, Content on Demand,
On-demand Programming, VOD on the Web, VOD on Cable, Pay-As-You-Go,
PAYG, All Day Movies, Live-streaming Video & On-demand
Video, Internet-on-Demand Video, IP-based Video, IPTV Broadcasting,
Internet HDTV, Internet Video, Web Video, Video Webcasting, Webcasting,
Broadcast Internet, IPVBI, TinyTV, Switched Digital Video, SDV, Video
Dial Tone, IPVBI, Sports on Demand, Application on Demand,
Entertainment on Demand, Information on-demand, News on-demand,
On-demand Services, Television on-demand, Switched-on TV,
Anything-on-demand.) - The Internet, intranets and a
of other networks can be used for Video on Demand. Content can be
viewed using many different electronic devices, including phones, PCs, media
center PCs, set-top
boxes, certain portable
devices, etc. VOD allows viewers to select video and its
content, then have it sent for viewing to their set-top
phone, etc. If the VOD is to be viewed on a TV, the program might be
stored in the customer’s DVR.
case the customer would watch it
off of that DVR's
hard drive. (This is more often the case with satellite TV
and Internet distribution scenarios.) Or, in the case of
cable television and IPTV,
the customer typically can watch it directly
from the network's head-end
(which is the network operator's operating,
distribution and storage facility). (See Network
VOD is a form of Timeshifting. Typically those watching VOD on a TV
(TV-based VOD) can pause, fast forward, rewind, etc. as if they were
watching the program on a VCR, DVD, or DVR.
the past this was often known as Interactive Video on Demand, now it's
become standard operating procedure. Typically a digital set-top
center is required to get TV-based VOD but one can download
programming to other media devices such as video iPods, game consoles
such as Xbox, Digital
Media Receivers (such as Apple TV,) Digital
Media Adapters and Media
Media Receivers, Digital
Media Adapters and Media
Extenders (and devices that have this technology integrated
them,) connect one electronic device, such as your Media
desktop PC, Home
Media Server, etc. to your TV, or another display device.
TV-based Video on Demand has come a long way, and fast. Up until
literally the last few years, many in the television world would
readily categorize it as "Interactive Television". But as it has
developed the industry ended up separating it from Interactive
Television by giving it it's own category. There is no doubt that it is
a form of Interactive Television but at a "lower level". Earlier this
decade a significant number of TV-based VOD systems required the
subscriber to call the network operator with their programming and time
of viewing choices.
Cable and telco networks, due to having larger bandwidth capacity than
most satellite TV providers, are currently in a better position to
offer Video on Demand for television, as well as Network
Digital Video Recording (nDVR). Telcos are incorporating IPTV
are restricting the
number of titles available for VOD for fear of programming being
copied, as well as a perceived lack of profit. Movie studios generally
won't allow movies to be available through VOD until 45 days after the
DVDs go on sale. At the time of this writing (spring, 2006,) studios
typically earn only $1 or $2 from each movie rental but can make $12 or
more from each DVD sale.
VOD advertising is often sold on a cost-per-impression basis. The
problem with doing business based on impressions is that programmers
arrive at the count in different ways. An impression could mean an ad
has been viewed in its entirety or only in part.
TV-based Video on Demand is often available in these formats:
1) Free VOD, which includes Basic or Family Packages.
2) Subscription VOD, where a separate regularly re-occurring fee is
charged for a plurality of VOD programming.
3) Pay-per-view VOD, (Transactional VOD), often used to deliver
individualized programs on demand. With PPV VOD, often the customer can
watch all he/she wants in a 24 hour period. Special boxing matches are
Typically each of the above operates the same. Each offers play, pause,
stop, fast-forward, rewind, etc.
VOD may be (or have been) categorized as follows:
- Interactive Video On Demand
- True Video on Demand
- Near Video On Demand
- Subscription Video on Demand
- Free Video on Demand
- Quasi Video on Demand
- Impulse Video on Demand
- Exclusive Video on Demand
Video on Demand
- (IVOD) - This is the standard type of
VOD today (though it wasn't when this dictionary was first written.)
VCR, DVD and DVR type functions, such as fast forward, rewind, and
pause are offered. An IVOD system can have three components: (1) the
", or equivalent (and it's components,) (2) the network
connected to, (and it's distribution components) and the (3) servers
with archives of programming. Typically the subscriber's set-top
are how they communicate with the VOD servers. The interactive
functions that the VOD user has at their disposal can include:
Play/Resume - Start a
program/movie from the beginning or resume after temporarily stopping
2. Stop - Temporarily or permanently stop the presentation of the show.
3. Pause - Freeze the picture.
4. Jump forward - Jump to a particular time in the
(movie) in a forward direction.
5. Jump backward - Jump to a particular time in the presentation
(movie) in a backward direction.
6. Fast Forward (FF) - Browse through the movie in the
direction with picture and sound on.
7. Slow Down - Going forward at a lower rate than normal but with
picture and sound.
8. Reverse - Playing the movie in the reversed direction with picture
9. Fast Reverse - Browse the presentation in the backward direction
with picture and sound at a faster speed than standard reverse.
10. Slow Reverse: Go backward at a slower speed, with picture and
11. Other interactive features include the ability to avoid or select
advertisements, to investigate additional details about news events and
to browse, select, and purchase goods.
Video on Demand - (EVOD) - When a particular TV-based VOD
content provider (most likely your network operator) offers a function,
service and/or program that no other content provider has (or very few
have), it might be called Exclusive Video on Demand.
Video on Demand
(FVOD) - (a.k.a. Free On-demand, FOD, FVOD, Free Video on
– Video on Demand programming that a network
makes available as part of a basic content package.
(FVOD) can make it possible for subscribers to have unlimited access to
movies/programming offered during that time period. The opposite would
be Subscriber Video on Demand (SVOD) where a subscriber pays a standard
reoccurring fee for programming that may have no, or limited
Video on Demand
(Impulse VOD) - Though now-a-days it's typically all just referred to
as "Video on Demand" but in the past, this term often referred to the
ability to order TV-based Video on Demand programming, without having
to first phone in your order to the network
Video On Demand
(NVOD) - A particular program/movie is advertised to start a regular
intervals over a particular channel. You pay your money
electronically and select what time and day you want to start watching
the program/movie. A small portion of the program/movie may be sent and
stored on your DVR
buffer or hard drive, most of the program/movie is viewed from (off of)
the server of the network operator offering the NVOD service.
Typically you can fast forward, rewind,
with NVOD as you're able to do with TVOD.
Video on Demand
(QVOD) - Same as Near Video on Demand except that the show
(programming) only will be presented if a minimum number of subscribers
sign up for it.
Video on Demand - (SVOD) - (Subscription-based Movies
Programming) - Generally movie/programming packages are scheduled
events; SVOD can make it possible, for a fixed fee, for subscribers to
have unlimited access to movies/programming during a specific time
period, such as a month. The opposite would be Free Video on Demand
(FVOD) where a subscriber pays no special fee for the programming.
Video on Demand (TVOD) - (May be known as Pay Per View VOD, Standard VOD.)
– This is the opposite of Subscription Video on Demand
With Transactional VOD the customer pays for each individual video on
demand program. With it's opposite, SVOD, typically the subscriber pays
a set amount, (often monthly) for a set amount of video on demand.
Now-a-days most refer to Transactional
VOD simply as "VOD".
Video On Demand
- (TVOD) - (Now just known as Video on Demand) - An older antiquated
term for video on demand (VOD) service where individual end-users would
get immediate responses when interacting with the Video on Demand
system. With TVOD, the user would order the program at will and be able
to do VCR-like commands on the VOD system with the same quick response
time as when operating a VCR. This increased speed of the response time
can significantly increase the cost of operating a VOD system. An
alternative was Near Video on Demand (NVOD) as it reduced the cost by
increasing the waiting time. TVOD is more often just known as VOD
(Video on Demand) as it is the standard form of VOD in television now.
Two major types of VOD are streaming video and
non-streaming video. Streaming video (sometimes known as HTTP Streaming
video or Progressive
) is when the video is compressed and sent
network, such as the Internet. It’s then decompressed by the
receiver (set-top box) for displaying on your screen. Typically the
file begins displaying before it has completely been delivered to your set-top
(to save transmission time and bandwidth.) Literally the
programming plays as it's being downloaded. The non-streaming
variety of video needs the downloaded files to be completely sent
before they can be played.
Important also are the system’s video
are a computer system capable of storing large
of video and serving it (sending it) to user's TV systems. Also
important is the Conditional
is an encryption/decryption management method
system) where the broadcaster controls the subscriber's access to
digital and Interactive TV services. This can ensure that the
person is who he/she says they are (authenticity) and provides security
for purchasing and other transactions. The end-users
(subscribers) have a receiver (set-top box) that allows him or her "Conditional
" to the services available through that
(or the equivalent) may be used to access the system by the end-user.
TV-based Video on
Demand is revolutionizing the television viewing experience. Why?
Because in time you'll be able to view most of your favorite
programming (shows) in this manner, and not just movies and/or special
events. Imagine at any time of the day or night, searching
interactively through your TV and finding your favorite sit-coms listed
by episode. Click interactively on an episode’s electronic button, in
the same manner that you would on a Web page and up comes what that
episode is about and other pertinent information about it. Want to
watch 10 episodes in a row of that sit-com, even if it’s midnight? No
problem, you make your own viewing schedule with Video on Demand.
(Chances are good you'll need a digital TV package).
One of the major reasons for
implementation of VOD
is to cut down on “Churn.” Churn denotes subscribers that start and
stop their subscription faster than the network would prefer, a process
that adds to the business cost of networks. The assumption is that if
more options are available for the customer, they will be less likely
to stop receiving the service.
Developments such as improvements in VOD servers, better codecs
better ethernet, and Passive
(PON) etc. technologies replacing the older,
slower technologies such as asynchronous serial interface (ASIs)
connections, have been essential.
Marketplace, which launched in November of 2006, as of mid-2007, has
around 2,100 hours of movie downloads available to Xbox 360 owners.
It's introduction to Europe is set for August, 2007. (Of course we all
know about iTunes' success as a download service.)